Eficácia da telereabilitação pulmonar na tolerância ao exercício, fadiga, percepção de esforço, depressão e qualidade de vida em sobreviventes de COVID-19

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17267/2238-2704rpf.2024.e5416

Palavras-chave:

COVID-19, Dispneia, Reabilitação Pulmonar, Qualidade de Vida, Telerreabilitação

Resumo

INTRODUÇÃO: A telerreabilitação avançou significativamente com o surgimento da COVID-19 e a recomendação de limitar o tempo de contato entre fisioterapeutas e pacientes sempre que possível. A eficácia da telerreabilitação em pacientes que permaneceram mais tempo no hospital e necessitaram de suporte de oxigênio após a alta ainda está em questão. OBJETIVO: Para avaliar os efeitos após seis semanas de telereabilitação pulmonar na tolerância ao exercício, nível de fadiga, percepção de esforço, sintomas de depressão e qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de COVID-19. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo quase-experimental com dezesseis pacientes pós-COVID-19 selecionados de um hospital multispecializado. Os participantes foram orientados a preparar equipamentos como concentrador de oxigênio, cilindro de oxigênio tipo B (reserva), tubos de oxigênio longos, oxímetro de pulso, exercitador de pedal estático, espirômetro incentivador, pesos de tornozelo ou garrafas d'água e sacos de areia. Após seis semanas de telereabilitação, os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliações, incluindo saturação inicial de oxigênio (SPO2), frequência cardíaca, demanda máxima de oxigênio durante o exercício para manter a SPO2 basal, frequência cardíaca máxima, queda máxima na SPO2, tempo de recuperação para SPO2 basal medido com um oxímetro de pulso e cronômetro, esforço percebido máximo usando a Escala de Dispneia de Borg, pontuação máxima de fadiga usando a escala analógica visual (VASF), qualidade de vida avaliada com o questionário SF-36 e estado de saúde mental avaliado com a Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (HAMD). RESULTADOS: Melhorias significativas após a intervenção foram observadas na SPO2 inicial (F (2,12, 23,13) = 21,0, p <0,05) e na frequência cardíaca (F (1,839, 20,23) = 43,73, p <0,05), demanda máxima de oxigênio durante o exercício para manter a SPO2 basal (F (1,487, 16,36) = 8,96, p <0,05), esforço percebido máximo (F (5, 55) = 112,51, p <0,05), pontuação máxima de fadiga (F (1,755, 19,30) = 67,44, p <0,05), frequência cardíaca máxima (F (1,798, 19,78) = 50,99, p <0,05), queda máxima na SPO2 (F (2,467, 27,14) = 41,46, p <0,05) e tempo máximo de recuperação para alcançar a SPO2 basal (F (5, 55) = 78,89, p <0,05). A análise de seis semanas pós-intervenção nos sintomas depressivos (diferença média = 11,25, p <0,05) e na qualidade de vida também mostrou melhoria significativa (diferença média = 29,92, p <0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Seis semanas de telerreabilitação pulmonar abrangente com equipamentos simples melhoraram a tolerância ao exercício, a fadiga, a percepção de esforço, os sintomas de depressão e a qualidade de vida em pacientes pós-COVID-19.

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Publicado

25.04.2024

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1.
Palaniappan R, Muthusamy S, Subramaniam A, Krishnan A, Jagannathan KK, Rajagopal A. Eficácia da telereabilitação pulmonar na tolerância ao exercício, fadiga, percepção de esforço, depressão e qualidade de vida em sobreviventes de COVID-19. Rev Pesq Fisio [Internet]. 25º de abril de 2024 [citado 20º de maio de 2024];14:e5416. Disponível em: https://www5.bahiana.edu.br/index.php/fisioterapia/article/view/5416

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