Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders and for improving physical performance: protocol of umbrella reviews

protocolo de revisões guarda-chuva



Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Transcranial direct current stimulation, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review


Background: With the increasing meta-analysis studies of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) a major review has become a logical step to provide evidence to support decision-makers. Objective: Umbrella reviews of the Working-Group of NAPeN Network (a Brazilian scientific network for NIBS development) will summarize the results of existing evidence in meta-analysis with focus on NIBS techniques applied for clinical settings, exercise and sports science. Methods and materials:  Firstly, a screening was performed to identify meta-analysis in which NIBS were applied to neurological and psychiatric disorders and healthy subjects. A second literature search was conducted in the Pubmed using a PICO-question for each population and NIBS techniques found in the first search. Methodological quality and certainty of evidence will be evaluated using the AMSTAR 2 and GRADE framework, respectively. Partial results: After the first search, we found meta-analyses including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, applied in populations with neurological (cerebral palsy, chronic pain, dementia, epilepsy, essential tremor, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, tinnitus, tourette syndrome, and stroke) and psychiatric disorders (anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, schizophrenia, craving/addiction and depression), and in healthy subjects. A total of 118 meta-analyses will be included in the qualitative review. The results of evidence were identified in the outcomes of six umbrella reviews. Conclusion:  Evidence of therapeutic and nontherapeutic use of NIBS techniques will support experts to produce consensus statements and assist professionals in making decisions of incorporating or not NIBS into clinical practice.


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How to Cite

Shirahige, L., Baptista, A., Sá, K. N., Baltar, A., Marques, D., Carneiro, M. S., Brito, R., Tanaka, C., Oda, A. L., Okano, A., Brunoni, A., Monte-Silva, K., & Working Group, N. (2022). Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders and for improving physical performance: protocol of umbrella reviews: protocolo de revisões guarda-chuva. Brain Imaging and Stimulation, 1, e4400. Retrieved from