Login or Register to make a submission.

Author Guidelines

Prior to submission, all authors are invited to access the Section Policies of this journal to further understand which types of articles will be considered for publication in this journal.

The paper must be submitted in English, Portuguese or Spanish and the authors are responsible for content, spelling, grammar, punctuation and translation to English.

The Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare is an Open Access journal published to serve the international scientific community by providing high quality scientifically accurate research reports, therefore it charges no submission nor publication fee of any kind.

Guidelines last updated May 25th 2023

Submission Preparation Checklist

All submissions must meet the following requirements.

  • Formatting: The text must be presented in size 12pt, with 1.5 of spacing in between the lines, in a single column, as to fit a standard A4 vertical sheet. Please, employ the metric system.

  • Tables, figures, charts, graphs, datasets etc: Questionnaire forms, interviews, tables, figures, graphs, charts and datasets must be submitted separately as supplementary files with the proper identification and numbering. Additionally, tables, figures, charts and graphs must also be placed in the manuscript in their proper places.

  • File extensions: Text files must have a .doc extension. Tables may have a .xls or .doc extension. Datasets must have a .xls extension. Figures and graphs must have a .jpg, .png or .tiff extension with 300dpi of resolution. No file may exceed 4Mb of size.

  • Title, abstract and keywords: Providing title, abstract and keywords in the manuscript text file and in the appropriate form fields whenever requested by the submission system is a requirement for it to be considered for peer review.

    The title must be objective and accurate.

    The keywords, ranging from 3 to 5, must come from the controlled vocabulary available in the Medical Subject Headings / MeSH database.

    The abstracts must be structured, with no more than 250 words long, to include the following labeled sections: introduction, objectives, methods and materials, results and conclusion.

  • Authorship: Up to ten (10) authors can be listed in a single report, except when it comes to reporting research activities of cooperating research centers, laboratories and institutions, when more authors may be listed. Case reports, experience reports and reviews may list no more than six (06) authors. Providing the following metadata for each listed author in the appropriate form fields when requested by the submission system is a requirement for the paper to be considered for peer review: a) all authors with full name (no abbreviation allowed), b) main affiliation, c) city, state, country, d) email and e) ORCID. E.g.: Jennifer Smith. Federal University of Bahia. Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. (ORCID XXXX-0000-XX00-X1X5). The system will automatically send out messages to each author with a link for them to authenticate their ORCIDs. The authentication for all authors is a condition for the article to be evaluated by editors and reviewers. The contribution of each author must be listed in a separated text file which must be then submitted as supplementary file, e.g.: Smith KFA and Smith DB designed the experiments. Smith JLW wrote the code. Smith JLW and Smith YW analyzed the data. Smith MC and Smith PP prepared samples for sequencing and performed all sequencing. Smith VS cultured the cell lines. Smith XW contributed with critical intellectual content. Smith KFA, Smith MC, Smith YW, and Smith JLW wrote the manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the paper. We comply with the ICMJE criteria for defining authorship.

  • Social media integration: Each author in a submission may supply no more than one social media handle that will be published along with their authorship information in case of acceptance of their submission. This is an opt-in feature only and it is not a condition for text evaluation. The provided social media profile must be aimed at scientific debate and dissemination only.

  • Competing interests: Authors are required to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence their work in the field "Comments for the editor".

  • Financing sources: All funding received by the authors for carrying out the research, including scholarships, grants, courtesies and fees, must be informed in the "Comments to the editor" field.

  • References: References must be cited and formatted according to the Vancouver Style. The Digital Object Identifiers (doi®) of a published work must be included in the reference whenever the published work have had a doi® assigned to it.

  • Research Ethics: Any research on, related to, or involving human subjects should state that the they had been approved by the ethics committee of the institution where the research was conducted in compliance with the international requirements, standards and procedures, such as stated in the Declaration of Helsinki. The research registration number in the Plataforma Brasil / Brazilian Ministry of Health (Brazilian National System of Research Ethics) database or in the similar international research ethics database must be included in the paper.

    No form of participant identification, such as disclosure of initials, full name and registration number, is permitted. The local ethics on research committee authorization and, whenever applicable, the authorization for use of image and voice for scientific purposes signed by the participant allowing their medical conditions and anonymized clinical records to be made public for the purpose of scientific research reporting must be provided by authors as supplementary files.

    Any studies on, related to or involving other vertebrates must have had been conducted in compliance with international ethical recommendations for experimentation on animals. They must have had been approved by the proper research committee, and the documentation of that process must be sent as an additional file as well.

    All registration of clinical trials must be in a public trials registry at or before the time of first participant enrollment. The trial registration number must be provided in the manuscript and at the end of the abstract. The WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) or the or any national platform for clinical trials registration may be employed.

    All reviews must have been previously registered in the PROSPERO database and the PRISMA checklist must be submitted as supplementary file.

    More information about clinical trials registration here.

  • Reproduction of copyrighted material: The first mention of a trademark must include the name of the manufacturer and the country of origin.

    When reproducing any copyrighted material, the authors must provide the authorization by the respective copyright owners, including but not limited to charts, figures and graphs.

  • Overlapping publications: They are discouraged, except in the situations allowed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors - ICMJE.

    If the prerequisites for second publication described by the ICMJE are met, the authors must upload the permission granted by the first publication rights owner as supplementary file.

    The first publication must be cited in a footnote.

    Uploading papers to preprint servers for peer review is encouraged and it will not be considered as overlapping publication.

  • Reporting transparency: When available for the type of report submitted, the filled out EQUATOR checklist, informing on which page of the manuscript each requested item per study design appears, must be uploaded as a supplementary file at the time of submission. While we enforce the mandatory checklist, we also respect the author's autonomy regarding their final reporting, provided that any choice is duly justified when questioned by reviewers and editors.

Checklist last updated in August 29th, 2023.

Research Articles

  • Meta-science I: studies that explore different scientific fields, quantitatively and/or qualitatively describing phenomena that lead to poor research quality (

  • Meta-science II: studies that test hypotheses regarding the impact of specific phenomena on quality or applicability of evidence.

  • Accuracy Studies: validation of diagnostic and prognostic methods (clinical examination, laboratory, imaging), derivation / validation of multivariate models for causality or prediction.

  • Screening Studies: studies that evaluate the diagnostic yield and clinical impact of testing procedures in asymptomatic population.

  • Therapy Studies: observational studies as hypothesis generation for efficacy, randomized clinical trials for efficacy, effectiveness studies (real world application) and cost-effectiveness studies.
Up to 5,000 words in length.

Studies reporting negative findings

This is a special section for original research focused on articles with negative findings, with the intention to counterbalance the publication bias phenomenon.

Up to 5,000 words in length.

Choosing Wisely

In order to reduce the burden of unnecessary medical tests, treatments and procedures, the Choosing Wisely initiative promotes the development of guidelines and recommendations in healthcare. In this section, articles should describe the process through which the Choosing Wisely lists were developed, present results in descriptive (preferences) and/or analytical (predictors of preferences) terms.

We also expect the manuscripts to discuss he problem of unwise expenditure of resources and how it came into attention, the current choices of conduct by the medical community so far, and what the initiative recommends based on which rationale.

Up to 5,000 words in length.

Thought Experiments

This is a section for creative but thorough and metodologically sound “thought experiments” aimed to test and/or push the boundaries of study designs, methodological approaches, clinical reasoning and paradigms in the health sciences, their interpretations and their eventual biases. The experimentation concerns content, not form. Thus, the same scientific ground rules apply:
  1. The "thought experiment" is an imaginary experiment with a scientific message implicit in its logic. In the biomedical sciences, it has been used as a satirical and didactical way to anchor people's minds towards better understanding of research concepts.

  2. The submissions may be structured in the form of original articles or systematic reviews encompassing the same architecture as those.

  3. Hypotheses must be tested and questions must be asked as they would be in a real-world experiment.

  4. The data collection should follow the best practices in research.

  5. The study designs must be as transparent and replicable as possible.

  6. The study designs must reflect real study designs already in use in the health sciences research community.

Up to 5,000 words in length.

Concept Articles

This is one of the main types of articles published by Evidence, a space for the authors to reflect about the scientific ecosystem, scientific integrity, principles of clinical reasoning, what evidence-based medicine is (and what it is not), in addition to summarizing knowledge about: 
  • Statistical concepts (statistical tools and predisposition to random errors);

  • Methodological concepts (systematic errors);

  • Evidence-based medicine tools (scores of critical appraisal, meta-analysis, cost-effectiveness methods, prediction tools);

  • Principles of evidence-based clinical reasoning;

  • Cognitive biases.

Up to 2,500 words in length.

Critical Appraisal of Evidence

  • Articles commenting on the quality and impact of studies published over the last 12 months.

  • Description of methods, software or other tools, following the appropriated guidelines and contributing to the evidenced-based research field.

Up to 1,500 words in length.

Systematic Reviews

This is a section for systematic reviews of papers reporting on the lastest findings in the fields of diagnosis, prognosis or therapy. 

All reviews must have been previously registered in the PROSPERO database and the PRISMA checklist must be submitted as supplementary file.

Up to 5,000 words in length.

Registered Reports

An efficient way to prevent questionable research practices such as p-hacking, HARKing, and the publication bias phenomenon is to allow for authors to pre-register their hypotheses and planned analyses in the form of Registered Reports, before the data collection takes place. Therefore, this section serves to help the readers on distinguishing a priori hypothesis testing from posthoc analysis by publishing methods and protocols. Through careful peer review, Evidence will help the authors who submit papers to this section to correct methodological flaws before they happen by assessing the experimental design prior to the data collection. 

Research protocols submitted to this section must contain introduction, methods, and, if that should be the case, any pilot experiments that motivated the research hypothesis and study design. The manuscript should remark outcome-neutral conditions for ensuring that the proposed methods are capable of testing the stated hypotheses. Sample size calculation and rigorous statistical plan of analysis must be included in the manuscript as well. 

In the submitted protocol, the following aspects are deemed essential and will be carefully assessed:

  1. Objective(s), either analytical (explicit hypothesis) or descriptive (what is to be described);

  2. Sample selection method (ethical compliance and clearance, target population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, recruitment procedures);

  3. Well-defined primary outcome;

  4. Well-defined secondary outcomes;

  5. Data analysis plan (primary and secondary analyses included), detailing how multiple comparisons are going to be prevented/avoided;

  6. Sample size calculation: assumptions are to be clearly presented; for an analytical study, what is the expected effect size, what is the premise behind the expected behavior of the variables (frequency in the case of categorical variables and expected standard deviation in the case of numerical).

In case of acceptance, the journal guarantees publication of a second submission containing the full study if the authors conduct the experiment in accordance with the approved protocol. This second submission will be required to include, in the results section, the outcome of the pre-registered analyses. 

Scoping review protocols may be submitted to this section as well.

Up to 5,000 words in length.

Bridging the gap

In order to counteract the rising tide of medical misinformation and its deleterious effects on the global health and trust in science, we invite undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and professors to summarize scientific consensuses in the health sciences to society, policymakers and media outlets in this section with formal but comprehensive language to the public in general.

This section is open to submissions regarding topics such as social impact of research in the health sciences; trust in the health sciences and related fields; scientific misinformation, effective communication and dissemination strategies in the health sciences, etc.

Submissions to this section must answer the following questions: why this topic is relevant to the biomedical sciences, why and how it is relevant to society. In other words, how this research or issue affects the concerned citizens and why the consensus, strategy or practice the submission describes matters to science and society.

Up to 2,000 words in length.

Letter to the Editor

We would like to hear from you. Would you like to offer a quick criticism or evidence-based suggestion on any of our recent publications? You are welcome to submit your comments to this section of our journal.

Privacy Statement

According to the Brazilian General Law on Protection of Personal Data (LGPD in the Brazilian Portuguese acronym), the names, addresses and any other types of personal data inserted into this journal's database will be used solely for the editorial services provided by this publication and will not be made available for other purposes nor to third parties.

Statement last updated September 06th 2021