QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF THE GENERAL ORAL DIET SERVED IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL
Palavras-chave:Hospital oral diets, hospital menu, nutritional recommendations, food groups, hospital malnutrition
Introduction: The high prevalence of hospital protein-energy malnutrition is associated with several factors, including implemented dietary conducts.
Objective: Analyze nutritional characteristics of the general hospital oral diet (GHOD). Methods and materials: A prospective and descriptive study, with a qualitative and semi-quantitative approach, concerning the GHOD menu, was developed from May 2012 to August 2013. GHOD menu was established for 28 days and consisted of five meals: breakfast, lunch, mid-afternoon snack, dinner and bedtime snack. Weighing of each food served in the meals (lunch/dinner) from the GHOD menu was performed. Composition tables were used to calculate the total energy value (TEV) and the energy distribution percentage of macronutrients of the foods, as well as to quantify the food portions from different food groups.Results: The average energy distribution to TEV (2409.4±152.6 kcal/day) was adequate for proteins (13.4%), carbohydrates (64.7%), and lipids (21.9%). Variable energy supply was identified at breakfast (15.6-20.6%), lunch (26.2-36.6%), dinner (22.231.1%), mid-afternoon and bedtime snacks (8.4-15.5%). The overnight fasting period was up to 13h. In the evaluation of nutritional quality of the GHOD meals in accordance with food groups was identified excessive offer for beans, meat/eggs, oils/fats/oilseeds and sugar/sweets, and deficient offer for fruit/juices, legumes/vegetables and milk/dairy. Conclusions: It is essential to perform quantitative and qualitative nutritional characterization of the GHOD served to inpatients. Reducing the duration of the overnight fast, as well as adjustments in the supply of food groups and in food fractionation, can contribute to better meeting the nutritional needs and prevention of nutritional deficiencies.